2. #Jan25 2011 Egyptian Revolution
The 2011–2012 Egyptian revolution (Arabic: ثورة 25 يناير thawret 25 yanāyir, Revolution of 25 January) took place following a popular uprising that began on Tuesday, 25 January 2011. The uprising was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured a series ofdemonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labour strikes. Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Despite being predominantly peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes between security forces and protesters, with at least 846 people killed and 6,000 injured. The uprising took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt, following the Tunisian revolution that resulted in the overthrow of the long-time Tunisian president. On 11 February, following weeks of determined popular protest and pressure, Mubarak resigned from office.
Grievances of Egyptian protesters were focused on legal and political issues including police brutality, state of emergency laws, lack of free elections and freedom of speech, uncontrollable corruption, and economic issues including high unemployment, food price inflation, and low minimum wages. The primary demands from protest organizers were the end of the Hosni Mubarak regime and the end of emergency law; freedom, justice, a responsive non-military government, and a say in the management of Egypt’s resources. Strikes by labour unions added to the pressure on government officials.
During the uprising the capital city of Cairo was described as “a war zone,” and the port city of Suez was the scene of frequent violent clashes. The government imposed a curfew that protesters defied and that the police and military did not enforce. The presence of Egypt’s Central Security Forces police, loyal to Mubarak, was gradually replaced by largely restrained military troops. In the absence of police, there was looting by gangs that opposition sources said were instigated by plainclothes police officers. In response, watch groups were organised by civilians to protect neighbourhoods.
International response to the protests was initially mixed, though most called for peaceful actions on both sides and moves toward reform. Most Western governments expressed concern about the situation. Many governments issued travel advisories and made attempts to evacuate their citizens from the country. The Egyptian Revolution, along with Tunisian events, has influenced demonstrations in other Arab countries includingYemen, Bahrain, Jordan, Syria and Libya.
Mubarak dissolved his government and appointed military figure and former head of the Egyptian General Intelligence Directorate Omar Suleimanas Vice-President in an attempt to quell dissent. Mubarak asked aviation minister and former chief of Egypt’s Air Force, Ahmed Shafik, to form a new government. Mohamed ElBaradei became a major figure of the opposition, with all major opposition groups supporting his role as a negotiator for some form of transitional unity government. In response to mounting pressure, Mubarak announced he would not seek re-election in September.
On 11 February Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak would be stepping down as president and turning power over to theSupreme Council of the Armed Forces. On 24 May, Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of premeditated murder of peaceful protestors and, if convicted, could face the death penalty.
The military junta, headed by effective head of state Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, announced on 13 February that the constitution would be suspended, both houses of parliament dissolved, and that the military would rule for six months until elections could be held. The prior cabinet, including Prime Minister Ahmed Shafik, would continue to serve as a caretaker government until a new one is formed. Shafik resigned on 3 March, a day before major protests to get him to step down were planned; he was replaced by Essam Sharaf, the former transport minister.
Although Mubarak resigned, the protests have continued amid concerns about how long the military junta will last in Egypt; some are afraid that the military will rule the country indefinitely.
In Egypt and the wider Arab world, the protests and subsequent changes in the government have generally been referred to as the 25 January Revolution (ثورة 25 ينايرThawrat 25 Yanāyir), Freedom Revolution (ثورة حرية Thawrat Horeya), or Rage Revolution (ثورة الغضب Thawrat al-Ġaḍab), and less frequently, the Revolution of the Youth (ثورة الشباب Thawrat al-Shabāb), Lotus Revolution (ثورة اللوتس), or White Revolution (الثورة البيضاء al-Thawrah al-bayḍāʾ).
Hosni Mubarak became head of Egypt’s semi-presidential republic government following the 1981 assassination of President Anwar El Sadat, and continued to serve until 2011. Mubarak’s 30-year reign made him the longest-serving President in Egypt’s history, with his National Democratic Party (NDS) government maintaining one-party rule under a continuous state of emergency. Mubarak’s government earned the support of the West and a continuation of annual aid from the United States by maintaining policies of suppression towards Islamic militants and peace with Israel. Hosni Mubarak was often compared to an Egyptian pharaoh by the media and by some of his critics due to his authoritarian rule.
Inheritance of power
Main article: Gamal Mubarak
Gamal Mubarak, the younger of Mubarak’s two sons, began to be groomed to succeed his father as the next president of Egypt around the year 2000. Gamal started receiving considerable attention in the Egyptian media, as there were no other apparent heirs to the presidency. Bashar al-Assad’s rise to power in Syria in June 2000, just hours after Hafez al-Assad’s death sparked a heated debate in the Egyptian press regarding the prospects for a similar scenario occurring in Cairo.
In the years after Mubarak’s 2005 reelection several political groups (most in Egypt are unofficial) on both the left and the right, announced their sharp opposition to the inheritance of power. They demanded political change and asked for a fair election with more than one candidate. In 2006, with opposition rising, The Daily News Egypt reported on an online campaign initiative called the National Initiative against Power Inheritance which demanded Gamal reduce his power. The campaign stated, “President Mubarak and his son constantly denied even the possibility of [succession]. However, in reality they did the opposite, including amending the constitution to make sure that Gamal will be the only unchallenged candidate.”
Over the course of the decade perception grew that Gamal would succeed his father. He wielded increasing power as NDP deputy secretary general, in addition to a post he held heading the party’s policy committee. Analysts went so far as describing Mubarak’s last decade in power as “the age of Gamal Mubarak.” With Mubarak’s health declining and the leader refusing to appoint a vice-president, Gamal was considered by some to be Egypt’s de-facto president.
Both Gamal and Hosni Mubarak continued to deny that an inheritance would take place. There was talk, however, of Gamal being elected; with Hosni Mubarak’s presidential term set to expire in 2010 there was speculation Gamal would run as the NDP party’s candidate in 2011.
After the January–February 2011 protest, Gamal Mubarak stated that he would not be running for the presidency in the 2011 elections.
An emergency law (Law No. 162 of 1958) was enacted after the 1967 Six-Day War. It was suspended for 18 months in the early 1980s and has otherwise continuously been in effect since President Sadat’s 1981 assassination. Under the law, police powers are extended, constitutional rights suspended, censorship is legalised, and the government may imprison individuals indefinitely and without reason. The law sharply limits any non-governmental political activity, includingstreet demonstrations, non-approved political organizations, and unregistered financial donations. The Mubarak government has cited the threat of terrorism in order to extend the emergency law, claiming that opposition groups like the Muslim Brotherhood could come into power in Egypt if the current government did not forgoparliamentary elections and suppress the group through actions allowed under emergency law. This has led to the imprisonment of activists without trials, illegal undocumented hidden detention facilities, and rejecting university, mosque, and newspaper staff members based on their political inclination. A parliamentary election in December 2010 was preceded by a media crackdown, arrests, candidate bans (particularly of the Muslim Brotherhood), and allegations of fraud involving the near-unanimous victory by the ruling party in parliament. Human rights organizations estimate that in 2010 between 5,000 and 10,000 people were in long-term detention without charge or trial.
According to a report from the U.S. Embassy in Egypt, police brutality has been common and widespread in Egypt. In the five years prior to the revolution, the Mubarak regime denied the existence of torture or abuse carried out by the police. However, many claims by domestic and international groups provided evidence through cellphone videos or first-hand accounts of hundreds of cases of police abuse.
According to the 2009 Human Rights Report by the U.S. State Department, “Domestic and international human rights groups reported that the Ministry of Interior (MOI) State Security Investigative Service (SSIS), police, and other government entities continued to employ torture to extract information or force confessions. The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights documented 30 cases of torture during the year 2009. In numerous trials defendants alleged that police tortured them during questioning. During the year activists and observers circulated some amateur cellphone videos documenting the alleged abuse of citizens by security officials. For example, on 8 February, a blogger posted a video of two police officers, identified by their first names and last initials, sodomizing a bound naked man named Ahmed Abdel Fattah Ali with a bottle. On 12 August, the same blogger posted two videos of alleged police torture of a man in a Port Said police station by the head of investigations, Mohammed Abu Ghazala. There was no indication that the government investigated either case.”
The deployment of plainclothes forces paid by Mubarak’s ruling party, Baltageya, (Arabic: بلطجية), has been a hallmark of the Mubarak government. The Egyptian Organisation for Human Rightshas documented 567 cases of torture, including 167 deaths, by police that occurred between 1993 and 2007. Excessive force was often used by law enforcement agencies. The police forces constantly squelched democratic uprisings with brutal force and corrupt tactics. On 6 June 2010 Khaled Mohamed Saeed died under disputed circumstances in the Sidi Gaber area of Alexandria. Multiple witnesses testified that Saeed was beaten to death by the police. A Facebook page called “We are all Khaled Said” helped bring nationwide attention to the case. Mohamed ElBaradei, former head of the International Atomic Energy Agency, led a rally in 2010 in Alexandria against alleged abuses by the police and visited Saeed’s family to offer condolences.
During the January — February 2011 protests, police brutality was high in response to the protests. Jack Shenker, a reporter for The Guardian, was arrested during the mass protests in Cairo on 26 January 2011. He witnessed fellow Egyptian protesters being tortured, assaulted, and taken to undisclosed locations by police officers. Shenker and other detainees were released after one of his fellow detainees’ well-known father, Ayman Nour, covertly intervened.
Corruption in government elections
Corruption, coercion to not vote, and manipulation of election results occurred during many of the elections over 30 years. Until 2005, Mubarak was the only candidate to run for the presidency, on a yes/no vote. Mubarak won five consecutive presidential elections with a sweeping majority. Opposition groups and international election monitoring agencies accused the elections of being rigged. These agencies have not been allowed to monitor the elections. The only opposing presidential candidate in recent Egyptian history, Ayman Nour, was imprisoned before the 2005 elections.According to a 2007 UN survey, voter turnout was extremely low (around 25%) because of the lack of trust in the corrupt representational system.
Restrictions on free speech and the press
Even though the Egyptian constitution provides for the universal freedom of speech (Egypt Constitution, Article 47 – 49), the government has frequently sanctioned home raids, torture, arrests, and fining of bloggers and reporters that criticize the government in any way. Under the current state of emergency laws, the government can censor anything if it is considered a threat to “public safety and national security”. If any reporter or blogger violates this law by criticizing the government, they could be legally penalized with a fine of 20,000 pounds ($3,650) and up to five years in prison. The Moltaqa Forum for Development and Human Rights Dialogue reported that between January and March 2009, 57 journalists from 13 newspapers faced legal penalties for their governmental critiques. The Egyptian government owns stock in the three largest daily newspapers. The government controls the licensing and distribution of all papers in Egypt. The Egyptian government shut down the Internet to most of Egypt during the recent protests in order to limit communication between protest groups.
Demographic and economic challenges
Unemployment and reliance on subsidized goods
Population pyramid in 2005. Many of those 30 and younger are educated citizens who are experiencing difficulty finding work.
The population of Egypt grew from 30,083,419 in 1966 to roughly 79,000,000 by 2008. The vast majority of Egyptians live in the limited spaces near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. In late 2010 around 40% of Egypt’s population of just under 80 million lived on the fiscal income equivalent of roughly US$2 per day, with a large part of the population relying on subsidized goods.
According to the Peterson Institute for International Economics and other proponents of demographic structural approach (cliodynamics), a basic problem in Egypt is unemployment driven by a demographic youth bulge: with the number of new people entering the job force at about 4% a year, unemployment in Egypt is almost 10 times as high for college graduates as it is for people who have gone through elementary school, particularly educated urban youth—the same people who were out in the streets during the revolution.
Poor living conditions and economic conditions
A poor neighbourhood in Cairo
Egypt’s economy was highly centralised during the tenure of President Gamal Abdel Nasser but opened up considerably under President Anwar Sadat and Mubarak. From 2004 to 2008 the Mubarak-led government aggressively pursued economic reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate GDP growth, but postponed further economic reforms because of global economic turmoil. The international economic downturn slowed Egypt’s GDP growth to 4.5% in 2009. In 2010 analysts said the government of Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif would need to restart economic reforms to attract foreign investment, boost growth, and improve economic conditions. Despite high levels of national economic growth over the past few years, living conditions for the average Egyptian remained poor, though better than many other countries in Africa.
Corruption among government officials
Political corruption in the Mubarak administration’s Ministry of Interior rose dramatically due to the increased level of control over the institutional system necessary to prolong the presidency. The rise to power of powerful businessmen in the NDP, in the government, and in the People’s Assembly led to massive waves of anger during the years of Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif’s government. An example is Ahmed Ezz’s monopolising the steel industry in Egypt by holding more than 60% of the market share. Aladdin Elaasar, an Egyptian biographer and an American professor, estimated that the Mubarak family was worth from $50 to $70 billion.
The wealth of Ahmed Ezz, the former NDP Organisation Secretary, was estimated to be 18 billion Egyptian pounds; the wealth of former Housing Minister Ahmed al-Maghraby was estimated to be more than 11 billion Egyptian pounds; the wealth of former Minister of Tourism Zuhair Garrana is estimated to be 13 billion Egyptian pounds; the wealth of former Minister of Trade and Industry, Rashid Mohamed Rashid, is estimated to be 12 billion Egyptian pounds; and the wealth of former Interior Minister Habib al-Adly was estimated to be 8 billion Egyptian pounds.
The perception among Egyptians was that the only people to benefit from the nation’s wealth were businessmen with ties to the National Democratic Party; “wealth fuels political power and political power buys wealth.”
During the Egyptian parliamentary election, 2010, opposition groups complained of harassment and fraud perpetrated by the government. Opposition and civil society activists called for changes to a number of legal and constitutional provisions which affect elections.
In 2010, Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) report assessed Egypt with a CPI score of 3.1, based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts (with 10 being clean and 0 being totally corrupt).
Lead-up to the protests
To prepare for a possible overthrow of Mubarak, opposition groups studied the work of Gene Sharp on non-violent revolution and worked with leaders of Otpor!, the student-led Serbian uprising of 2000. Copies of Sharp’s list of 198 non-violent “weapons”, translated into Arabic and not always attributed to him, were circulated in Tahrir Square during its occupation.
After the ousting of Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali due to mass protests, many analysts, including former European Commission President Romano Prodi, saw Egypt as the next country where such a revolution might occur. The Washington Post commented, “The Jasmine Revolution […] should serve as a stark warning to Arab leaders – beginning with Egypt’s 83-year-old Hosni Mubarak – that their refusal to allow more economic and political opportunity is dangerous and untenable.” Others held the opinion that Egypt was not ready for revolution, citing little aspiration of the Egyptian people, low educational levels, and a strong government with the support of the military. The BBC said, “The simple fact is that most Egyptians do not see any way that they can change their country or their lives through political action, be it voting, activism, or going out on the streets to demonstrate.”
A protester holds an Egyptian flag during the protests that started on 25 January 2011 in Egypt
Following the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in Tunisia on 17 December, a man set himself ablaze on 17 January in front of the Tunisian parliament; and about five more attempts of self-immolation followed.
National Police Day protests
Opposition groups planned a day of revolt for 25 January, coinciding with the National Police Day. The purpose was to protest against abuses by the police in front of the Ministry of Interior. These demands expanded to include the resignation of the Minister of Interior, an end to State corruption, the end ofEgyptian emergency law, and term limits for the president.
Many political movements, opposition parties, and public figures supported the day of revolt, including Youth for Justice and Freedom, Coalition of the Youth of the Revolution, the Popular Democratic Movement for Change, the Revolutionary Socialists and the National Association for Change. The 6 April Youth Movement was a major supporter of the protest and distributed 20,000 leaflets saying “I will protest on 25 January to get my rights”. The Ghad El-Thawra Party,Karama, Wafd and Democratic Front supported the protests. The Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt’s largest opposition group, confirmed on 23 January that it would participate. Public figures including novelist Alaa Al Aswany, writer Belal Fadl, and actors Amr Waked and Khaled Aboul Naga announced they would participate. However, the leftist National Progressive Unionist Party (the Tagammu) stated it would not participate. The Coptic Church urged Christians not to participate in the protests.
Twenty-six-year-old Asmaa Mahfouz was instrumental in sparking the protests. In a video blog posted a week before National Police Day, she urged the Egyptian people to join her on 25 January in Tahrir Square to bring down Mubarak’s regime. Mahfouz’s use of video blogging and social mediawent viral and urged people not to be afraid. The Facebook group set up for the event attracted 80,000 attendees.
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Under Hosni Mubarak’s rule
The “Day of Revolt” on 25 January
Hundreds of thousands of people protest in Tahrir Square
on 4 February 2011
Hundreds of thousands of people protest in Tahrir Square
on 8 February 2011
Hundreds of thousands of people protest in Tahrir Square
on 9 February 2011
Hundreds of thousands of people celebrate in Tahrir Square when Hosni Mubarak’s resignation is announced on 11 February 2011
25 January 2011: The “Day of Revolt”: Protests erupted throughout Egypt, with tens of thousands of protesters gathered in Cairo and thousands more in cities throughout Egypt. The protests targeted President Hosni Mubarak’s government, and mostly adhered to non-violence. There were some reports of civilian and police casualties.
26 January 2011: “Shutting down The Internet and Mobile Services”: After several Facebook groups were created and tweets (from Twitter) called for mass demonstrations, the Egyptian government shut down internet access for most of the country. This was done to cripple one of the protesters’ main organizational tools and to impede the flow of news and people.
28 January 2011: The “Friday of Anger” protests began. Hundreds of thousands demonstrated in Cairo and other Egyptian cities after Friday prayers. Opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei arrived in Cairo. There were reports of looting. Prisons were opened and burned down, allegedly on orders from then-Minister of the Interior Habib El Adly. Prison inmates escaped en masse, in what was believed to be an attempt to terrorise protesters. Police forces were withdrawn from the streets, and the military was deployed. International fears of violence grew, but no major casualties were reported. President Hosni Mubarak made his first address to the nation and pledged to form a new government. Later that night clashes broke out in Tahrir Square between revolutionaries and pro-Mubarak demonstrators, leading to the injury of several and the death of some.
29 January 2011: The military presence in Cairo increased. A curfew was declared, but was widely ignored as the flow of defiant protesters to Tahrir Square continued throughout the night. The military reportedly refused to follow orders to fire live ammunition, and exercised restraint overall. There were no reports of major casualties.
1 February 2011: Mubarak made another televised address and offered several concessions. He pledged to not run for another term in the elections planned for September, and pledged political reforms. He stated he would stay in office to oversee a peaceful transition. Small but violent clashes began that night between pro-Mubarak and anti-Mubarak groups.
2 February 2011: “Battle of the Camel”. Violence escalated as waves of Mubarak supporters met anti-government protesters, and some Mubarak supporters rode on camels and horses into Tahrir Square, reportedly wielding swords and sticks. President Mubarak reiterated his refusal to step down in interviews with several news agencies. Incidents of violence toward journalists and reporters escalated amid speculation that the violence was being encouraged by Mubarak as a way to bring the protests to an end.
6 February 2011: A multifaith Sunday Mass was held with Egyptian Christians and Egyptian Muslims in Tahrir Square. Negotiations involving Egyptian Vice President Omar Suleiman and representatives of the opposition commenced amid continuing protests throughout the nation. The Egyptian army assumed greater security responsibilities, maintaining order and guarding The Egyptian Museum of Antiquity. Suleiman offered reforms, while others of Mubarak’s regime accused foreign nations, including the US, of interfering in Egypt’s affairs.
10 February 2011: Mubarak formally addressed Egypt amid speculation of a military coup, but rather than resigning (as was widely expected), he simply stated he would delegate some of his powers to Vice President Suleiman, while continuing as Egypt’s head of state. Reactions to Mubarak’s statement were marked by anger, frustration and disappointment, and throughout various cities there was an escalation of the number and intensity of demonstrations.
11 February 2011: The “Friday of Departure”: Massive protests continued in many cities as Egyptians refused the concessions announced by Mubarak. Finally, at 6:00 pm local time, Suleiman announced Mubarak’s resignation, entrusting the Supreme Council of Egyptian Armed Forces with the leadership of the country. Nationwide celebrations immediately followed.
Under Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 1 April 2011
Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 8 April 2011
Tens of thousands of people protesting in Tahrir Square on 27 May 2011
13 February 2011: The Supreme Council dissolved Egypt’s parliament and suspended the Constitution in response to demands by demonstrators. The council declared that it would hold power for six months, or until elections could be held. Calls were made for the council to provide more details and specific timetables and deadlines. Major protests subsided but did not end. In a gesture to a new beginning, protesters cleaned up and renovated Tahrir Square, the epicenter of the demonstrations, although many pledged they would continue protests until all the demands had been met.
17 February 2011: The army stated it would not field a candidate in the upcoming presidential elections. Four important figures of the former regime were detained on that day: former interior minister Habib el-Adly, former minister of housing Ahmed Maghrabi former tourism minister Zuheir Garana, and steel tycoon Ahmed Ezz.
2 March 2011: The constitutional referendum was tentatively scheduled for 19 March 2011.
3 March 2011: A day before large protests against him were planned, Ahmed Shafik stepped down as Prime Minister and was replaced by Essam Sharaf.
5 March 2011: Several State Security Intelligence (SSI) buildings were raided across Egypt by protesters, including the headquarters for Alexandria Governorate and the main national headquarters in Nasr City, Cairo. Protesters stated they raided the buildings to secure documents they believed to show various crimes committed by the SSI against the people of Egypt during Mubarak’s rule.
6 March 2011: From the Nasr City headquarters, protesters acquired evidence of mass surveillance and vote rigging, and noted rooms full of videotapes, piles of shredded and burned documents, and cells where activists recounted their experiences of detention and torture.
19 March 2011: The constitutional referendum was held and passed by 77.27%.
22 March 2011: Parts of the Interior Ministry building caught fire during police demonstrations outside.
23 March 2011: The Egyptian Cabinet orders a law criminalising protests and strikes that hampers work at private or public establishments. Under the new law, anyone organising or calling for such protests will be sentenced to jail and/or a fine of LE500,000 (~100,000 USD).
1 April 2011: The “Save the Revolution” day: Approximately four thousand demonstrators filled Tahrir Square for the largest protest in weeks, demanding that the ruling military council move faster to dismantle lingering aspects of the old regime. Protestors demanded trial for Hosni Mubarak, Gamal Mubarak,Ahmad Fathi Sorour, Safwat El-Sherif and Zakaria Azmi as well.
8 April 2011: The “Friday of Cleaning”: Hundreds of thousands of demonstrators again filled Tahrir Square, criticizing the ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces for not following through on revolutionary demands. They demanded the resignation of remaining regime figures and the removal of Egypt’s public prosecutor due to the slow pace of investigations of corrupt former officials.
27 May 2011: The “Second Friday of Anger” (a.k.a. “Second Revolution of Anger” or “The Second Revolution”): Tens of thousands of demonstrators filled Tahrir Square in Egypt’s capital Cairo, besides perhaps demonstrators in each of Alexandria, Suez, Ismailia, Gharbeya and other areas; in the largest demonstrations since ousting Mubarak’s Regime. Protestors demanded no military trials for civilians, the Egyptian Constitution to be made before the Parliament elections and for all members of the old regime and those who killed protestors in January and February to be put on fair trial.
1 July 2011: The “Friday of Retribution”; Hundreds of thousands of protesters gathered in Suez, Alexandria and Tahrir Square in Cairo, to voice frustration with the ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces for what they called the slow pace of change five months after the revolution, some also feared that the military is to rule Egypt indefinitely.
8 July 2011: The “Friday of Determination”; Hundreds of thousands of protesters gathered in Suez, Alexandria and Tahrir Square in Cairo. They demanded immediate reforms and swifter prosecution of former officials from the ousted government.
15 July 2011”’: Hundreds of thousands continue to protest in Tahrir Square.
23 July 2011: Thousands of protesters try to march to the Defense Ministry. They are met with thugs that have sticks, stones, cocktails and other things. The protests are set off by a speech commemorating the 1952 coup led by Mohammed Tantawi.
1 August 2011: Egyptian soldiers clash with protesters, tearing down tents. Over 66 people were arrested. Most Egyptians supported the military’s action.
6 August 2011 Hundreds of protesters gathered and prayed in Tahrir Square. After they were done, they were attacked by the military.
9 September 2011: The ”2011 Israeli embassy attack”; The“Friday of Correcting the Path”; Tens of thousands of people protested Suez, Alexandria, Cairo, and other cites. Islamist protesters were absent.
9 October 2011: The ”Maspero demonstrations”; Late into the evening of 9 October, during a protest that was held in Maspiro, peaceful Egyptian protesters, calling for the dissolution the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, the resignation of its chairman, Field Marshal Mohamed Tantawi, and the dismissal of the governor of Aswan province, were attacked by military police. At least 25 people were killed and more than 200 wounded.
19 November 2011: Clashes first erupt in Tahrir Square as demonstrators reoccupy the location in central Cairo. Central Security Forces deploy tear gas in an attempt to control the situation.
20 November 2011: Police forces attempt to forcibly clear the square, but protesters soon return in more than twice their original numbers. Fierce fighting breaks out and continues through the night, with the police again using tear gas, beating and shooting demonstrators.
21 November 2011: Demonstrators return to the square, with Coptic Christians standing guard as Muslims protesting the regime pause for prayers. The Health Ministry says at least 23 have died and over 1,500 have been wounded since 19 November. Solidarity protests are held in Alexandria, Suez, and at least five other major Egyptian cities. Dissident journalist Hossam el-Hamalawy tells Al Jazeera that Egyptians will launch a general strike because they have “had enough” of the SCAF.
23 January 2012: Democratically elected representatives of the People’s Assembly met for the first time since Egypt’s revolution, and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces transferred legislative authority to them.
24 January 2012: Military ruler Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi said the decades-old state of emergency will be lifted partially on Wednesday 25 January.
12 April 2012: An administrative court suspended the 100-member constitutional assembly tasked with drafting a new constitution for Egypt.
Cities and regions : Mass civil disobedience
Protesters remove portraits of Ex-president Mubarak in Sohag
City in upper Egypt
Cairo has been at the epicentre of much of the crisis. The largest protests were held in downtown Tahrir Square, which was considered the “protest movement’s beating heart and most effective symbol.” On the first three days of the protests, there were clashes between the central security police and protesters and on 28 January, police forces withdrew from all of Cairo. Citizens formed neighbourhood watch groups to keep the order as widespread looting was reported. Traffic police were reintroduced to Cairo on the morning of 31 January. An estimated 2 million people protested at Tahrir square.
Alexandria, the home of Khaled Saeed, had major protests and clashes with the police. A demonstration on 3 February was reported to include 750,000 people. There were few confrontations as not many Mubarak supporters were around, except in occasional motorised convoys escorted by police. The breakdown of law and order, including the general absence of police on the streets, continued through to at least the evening of 3 February, including the looting and burning of one the country’s largest shopping centres, Carrefour Alexandria protests were notable for the presence of Christians and Muslims jointly taking part in the events following the church bombing on 1 January, which saw street protests denouncing Mubarak’s regime following the attack.
In the northern city of Mansoura there were protests against the Mubarak regime every day from 25 January onwards.
On 27 January, Mansoura was dubbed a “War Zone”. On 28 January, 13 were reported dead in violent clashes. On 9 February, 18 more protesters had died.
One protest on 1 February was estimated at one million people, The remote city of Siwa had been relatively calm. Local sheikhs, who were reportedly in control of the community, put the community under lockdown after a nearby town was “torched.”
The city of Suez has seen violent protests. Eyewitness reports have suggested that the death toll there may be high, although confirmation has been difficult due to a ban on media coverage in the area. Some online activists referred to Suez as Egypt’s Sidi Bouzid, the Tunisian city where protests started. A labour strike was held on 8 February. Large protests took place on 11 February.
On 3 February, 4,000 protesters went to the streets to call for Mubarak’s departure.
There were also protests in Luxor.
Police opened fire on protesters in Dairut on 11 February.
Tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets of Shebin el-Kom on 11 February.
Thousands protested in the city of El-Arish, in the Sinai Peninsula, on 11 February.
Large protests took place in the southern city of Sohag on 11 February.
Large protests took place in the southern city of Minya on 11 February.
Nearly 100,000 people protested in and about the local government headquarters in Ismaïlia on 11 February.
Over 100,000 protesters gathered on 27 January in front of the city council in Zagazig.
Bedouins in the Sinai Peninsula fought security forces for several weeks.
As a result of the decrease in military forces on the borders, Bedouin groups protected the borders and pledged their support to the ongoing revolution.
- No protests or civil unrest took place inSharm-El-Sheikhon 31 January.All was still calm as Hosni Mubarak and his family left on 11 February.
Redacted from Wikipedia.org.